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References of Remote Sensing using VHF Radar

Radar Systems


The University of Hamburg HF radar is based on CODAR (COastal raDAR), introduced in 1977 at NOAA by D.E.Barrick. It uses electromagnetic waves of about 10 m length, which interact with ocean waves of 5 m length. As one radar can only measure the radial component of the surface current, a minimum of two HF radars has to be installed. The systems are set up on the ground close to the sea and have a working range of up to 50 km depending on the salinity of the water and the sea state. This is an example for surface currents measured by CODAR in the German Bight. Current vectors are shown on a 3x3 km grid.


DRAGON, DRunkard Absurd GOrilliaN, VHF radar is basend on DBF type VHF radar, introductin in 2001. The system are set up on the ground close to the sea and working range of up to 30km with 500m resolution.

References in English

Surface Current

Moment method and its improvements

  • Merritt, C. D.A., 1995: A statistical averaging method for wind profiler Doppler spectra, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 985−995.
  • Pekour, M. S. and R. L. Coulter, 1999: A technique for removing the effect of migrating birds in 915MHz wipd profiler data, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 16, 194-1948.

Moment method with wavelet analysis

  • Boisse, J. -C., V. Kaus and J. -P. Aubagnac, 1999 : A wavelet transform technique for removing airplane echoes from ST radar signals, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 334-346.
  • Jordan, J.R., R.J. Lataitis and D.A. Carter, 1997 : Removing ground and intermittent clutter contamination from wind profiler signals using wavelet transfroms, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 1280-1297.

Moment method with neural network

  • Clothiaux, E.E., R.S. Penc, D.W. Thomson, T.P. Ackerman and S. R. Williams, 1994 : A first-guess feature-based algorithm for estimating wind speed in clear-air Doppler radar spectra, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 11, 888-908.
  • Cornman, L. B., R. K. Goodrich, C. S. Morse and W. L. Ecklund, 1998 : A fuzzy logic method for improved moment estimation from Doppler spectra, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 1287-1305.
  • Morse, C. S. , R. K. Goodrich and L. B. Cornman, 2002: The NIMA method forimproved moment estimation from Doppler spectra, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 274−295.

To be checked

  • Chapman, R., D., L. K. Shay, H. C. Graber, J. Edson, A. Karachintsev C. Trump and D. B. Ross: 1997, Accuracy of HF Radar Current Measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18,737-18,748
  • Graber, H. C., B. K. Haus, L. K. Shay, and R. D. Chapman, 1997 Expected differences of HF Radar surface current estimates. J. Geophys. Res.,102,18,749-18,766.
  • Kaihatu, J., R. A. Handler, G. O. Marmorino, and L. K. Shay, 1998 Empirical orthogonal function analysis of ocean surface currents using complex and real-vector methods. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.,15, 927-941.
  • Shay, L. K., 1997 Internal wave detected by HF radar. The Oceanogr. Soc.,10(2), 60-63.
  • Shay, L. K., H. C. Graber, D. B. Ross, and R. D. Chapman, 1995 Mesoscale Ocean Surface Current Structure Detected By HF Radar. J. Atmos. and Ocean. Tech.,12(4), 881-900.
  • Shay, L. K., S. J. Lentz, H. C. Graber, and B. K. Haus, 1998 Current structure variations detected by HF radar and vector measuring current meters. J. Atmos. and Oceanogr. Tech.,15(1), 237-256.
  • Shay, L. K., T. N. Lee, E. J. Williams, H. C. Graber and C. G. H. Rooth, 1998 Effects of low frequency current variability on near-inertial submesoscale vortices. J. Geophys. Res.,103,18,691-18,714.

Wave Measurement

  • K.-W. GURGEL, G. ANTONISCHKI, H.-H. ESSEN and T. SCHLICK, 1999, Wellen Radar (WERA), a new ground-wave based HF radar for ocean remote sensing, Coastal Engineering, VOL 37, NOS. 3-4, ISSN 0378-3839, pp. 219...234, August 1999
  • K.-W. GURGEL, H.-H. ESSEN and S. P. KINGSLEY, 1999,HF radars: Physical limitations and recent developments, Coastal Engineering, VOL 37, NOS. 3-4, ISSN 0378-3839, pp. 201-218, August 1999.
  • L. R. WYATT, J. J. GREEN, K.-W. GURGEL, J. C. NIETO BORGE, K. REICHERT, K. HESSNER, H. GUNTHER, W. ROSENTHAL, O. SATRA, and M. REISTAD, 2003, Validation and intercomparions of wave measurements and models during the EuroROSE experiments, Coastal Engineering, Vol 48, pp.1..28, 2003.

References in Japanese

  • 徳田正幸・永松 宏 (1999) 短波海洋レーダーの表層の自動抽出法の開発, 海洋調査技術, 11(1), pp.1.19
  • 児島正一郎・橋本典明・吉松みゆき (2001) 海洋短波レーダーによる海表面流速計測のための新しいドップラースペクトルの算定法, 海岸工学論文集, 48, pp.1421-1425.
  • 児島正一郎・橋本典明・徳田正幸 (2001) 海洋短波レーダーによる波浪観測に関する基礎的研究, 海岸工学論文集, 48, pp.1446-1450.
  • 笹岡雅弘 (2003) 集合化アルゴリズムを用いた境界層レーダーの風速推定制度の改善, 天気, vol.50, No.3, pp.161-174.