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Bubble Charasteristics and Gas Transfer in the Surf Zone


Ocean surface gravity wave propagation from offshore to shoreline is often regarded as a single phase flow using potential flow theories or the Navier-Stokes equation. Generally, the single phase flow approach to the ocean wave is successful for simulating wave transformation in the coastal area. However, waves steepen and break due to the bottom ibathymetric effects in the near shore. The wave breaking create dense plumes of bubbles, and dissipates energy and momentum. An accurate estimate of bubble size and population distributions in the surf zone is important for understanding two-phase flow characteristics, solving engineering problems and environmental mechanisms of the coastal area. Recent photographic studies have illustrated the disintegration of entrapped air cavities divided into bubbles. However, there are unexplained aspects of the problem, such as enhanced bubble populations in salt rather than freshwater scale effects of void and bubble size distribution in the laboratory experiments, and the relation between void fraction and turbulence.

The final goal of this study is estimation of oxygen transfer at coastal area.



  • Yusuke Matsuo, OCU
  • Hiroaki Kashima, PARI
  • Kousei Takehara, Kindai University

Research Period

This project has bee started since 2004.



Journal Paper

  1. Watanabe, Y. and N. Mori, Sub-surface vortex measurements in breaking water waves using an infrared imaging technique, Journal of Geophysical Research, Ocean, American Geophysical Union, (10.1029/2006JC003950).
  2. Mori, N. and S. Kakuno (2008) Aeration and bubble measurements of coastal breaking waves, Fluid Dynamics Research, Volume 40, Issues 7-8, pp.616-626. (doi:10.1016/j.fluiddyn.2007.12.013)
  3. Mori, N., T. Suzuki and S. Kakuno (2007) Experimental study of air bubbles and turbulence characteristics in the surf zone, Journal of Geophysical Research, Ocean, American Geophysical Union, Vol.112, C05014, doi:10.1029/2006JC003647
  4. Mori, N., T. Suzuki and S. Kakuno (2007) Noise of acoustic Doppler velocimeter data in bubbly flow, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume 133, Issue 1, pp.122-125.

Conference Proceedings

  • Mori, N. and S. Kakuno (2007) Intrusive and Imaging Bubble Measurements of Coastal Breaking Wave, Proceedings of the 1st International Colloquium on Dynamics, Physics and Chemistry of Bubbles and Gas-Liquid Boundaries, Niseko, Japan, CD-ROM, 10p.
  • Kashima, H., N. Mori and S. Kakuno (2006) Air bubble measurements of the surf zone breaking waves by bubble tracking velocimetry, Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, pp.934-945.
  • Mori, N., Kakuno, S., T. Suzuki, Y. Ohnishi (2005) `Experimental study on bubble and turbulence relations in the surf zone', Third Asia Pacific Coasts 2005: APAC2005, pp.1841-1856.

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