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References of wind wave breaking

Results of this project:

  • Mori, N., T. Suzuki and S. Kakuno (2007) Noise of acoustic Doppler velocimeter data in bubbly flow, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, American Society of Civil Engineers, in press (will be apeared in January issue).
  • Mori, N., Kakuno, S., T. Suzuki, Y. Ohnishi (2005) `Experimental study on bubble and turbulence relations in the surf zone', Third Asia Pacific Coasts 2005: APAC2005, pp.1841-1856.
  • Kashima, H., N. Mori and S. Kakuno (2006) `Temporal-spatial relationship between air bubbles and turbulence in the surf zone', Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE.

Basic Theories:

  • Van De Sande et al. Jet break-up and air-entrainment by low velocity turbulent water jets, Chem. Eng. Sci., 31, 219-224, 1976
  • Lewis and Davidson, Bubble Splitting in shear flow, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 60, 283-291, 1982
  • Deane, G.B., Sound generation and air entrainment by breaking waves in the surf zone, J. Acoust. Soc. America, 102, 2671-2689, 1997
  • Thorpe, S.A., 1992: Bubble clouds and the dynamics of the upper ocean. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 118, 1-22.

General Experiments and Observations:

  • Nature 385, pp.52-55.

Optical Measurements by Camera:

  • Grant B. Deane, M. Dale Stokes, Scale dependence of bubble creation mechanisms in breaking waves, Nature418, 839 - 844 (22 Aug 2002) Article
  • Mark Loewen, Nature418, 830 (22 Aug 2002) News and Views
  • W. Kendall Melville, Peter Matusov, Distribution of breaking waves at the ocean surface, Nature417, 58 - 63 (02 May 2002) Letters to Nature

Optical Measurements by PDA:

  • David Lee Black and Mardson Q. McQuay?. Laser-based particle measurements of spherical and nonspherical particles. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 27:1333-1362, 2001.
  • M. Sommerfeld, D. Broder, and J. Kussin. Recent developments and applications of non-intrusive optical techniques for the analysis of dispersed multiphase flow. In Proccedings of 4th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, pages 1-12, 2001.
  • Shao Lee Soo. Instrumentation for fluid particle flow. William Andrew Publishing, NY, 1999.

Acoustic Measurements:

  • Timothy Leighton Surf zone bubble spectrometry: The role of the acoustic cross section J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2694 (2001)
  • David M. Farmer Bubble size distributions in the wind driven surface layer J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2840 (1996)
  • Herman Medwin On counting ocean bubbles acoustically J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 2920 (1995)
  • Pandit AB; Varley J; Thorpe RB; Davidson JF (1992) Measurement of bubble size distribution: an acoustic technique. Chem Eng Sci 47: 1079-1089.
  • Ali R. Kolaini and Steve Means Noise generation by breaking waves in the surf zone J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2422 (2001)
  • Ali R. Kolaini and Jeffrey A. Nystuen Characteristics of the low- and high-frequency ambient sound from breaking waves in the surf zone J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2865 (1998)
  • Ali R. Kolaini Sound radiation by various types of laboratory breaking waves in fresh and salt water J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 300 (1998)
  • Jeffrey A. Nystuen and Ali R. Kolaini Exploring the surf zone using ambient sound J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 3103 (1997)
  • Ali R. Kolaini, Alexander M. Sutin, and Christopher M. Hobbs Sound magnification due to the collective oscillations of bubble clouds: A resonance phenomenon J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2806 (1996)
  • Yi Mao, Ali R. Kolaini, Xinwei Hao, and Pat B. Dandenault Scattering of sound from laboratory breaking waves J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 2938 (1995)
  • Pat B. Dandenault, Ali R. Kolaini, and Yi Mao Measurements of the scattering of sound from laboratory breaking waves J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3232 (1994)

Gas Exchange:

  • S. Komori and R. Misumi. The effecs of bubbles on mass transfer across the breaking air-water interface. In M.A. Donelan, W.M. Drennan, E.S. Saltzman, and R. Wanninkhof, editors, Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces, pages 285-290. AGU, Washington DC, 2002.
  • P.S. Liss and L. Merlivat. Air-sea gas exchange: introduction and synthesis. In P. Buat-Menard, editor, The role of air-sea exchange in geochemical cycling, pages 113-27. Dordrecht, Reidel, 1986.
  • L. Merlivat and L. Memery. Contribution of bubbles to gas transfer across an air-water interface, 1985.
  • E.C. Monahan. Occurrence and evolution of acoustically relevant subsurface bubble plumes and their associated, remotely monitorable surface whitecaps. In B.R. Kerman, editor, Natural Physical Sources of Underwater Sound. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht, 1990.
  • Thorpe, S. A., 1982: On the clouds of bubbles formed by breaking wind-waves in deep water, and their role in air-sea gas transfer. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A, 304.